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February 2023 Pediatric Dental Study Club Abstracts

February's Study Club highlights topical and local anesthetics, new technology in composites, emergency response, digital dentistry in the teenage years, and SDF and the pulp .

Join us on February 16th, 2023 at 7:00pm CST for our study club to discuss the following articles. We recommend reading the articles 1-2 weeks prior and taking notes on your insights to bring to the group for discussion.

#1 - Injectable and topical local anesthetics for acute dental pain: 2 systematic reviews Anna Miroshnychenko, Sara Ibrahim, Maria Azab, Yetiani Roldan, Juan Pablo Diaz Martinez, Divyalakshmi Tamilselvan, Leon He, Olivia Urquhart, Malavika Tampi, Deborah E Polk, Paul A Moore, Elliott V Hersh, Alonso Carrasco-Labra, Romina Brignardello-Petersen

Abstract Background: Local anesthesia is essential for pain control in dentistry. The authors assessed the comparative effect of local anesthetics on acute dental pain after tooth extraction and in patients with symptomatic irreversible pulpitis. Types of studies reviewed: The authors searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and the US Clinical Trials registry through November 21, 2020. The authors included randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing long- vs short-acting injectable anesthetics to reduce pain after tooth extraction (systematic review 1) and evaluated the effect of topical anesthetics in patients with symptomatic pulpitis (systematic review 2). Pairs of reviewers screened articles, abstracted data, and assessed risk of bias using a modified version of the Cochrane risk of bias 2.0 tool. The authors assessed the certainty of the evidence using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation approach. Results: Fourteen RCTs comparing long- vs short-acting local anesthetics suggest that bupivacaine may decrease the use of rescue analgesia and may not result in additional adverse effects (low certainty evidence). Bupivacaine probably reduces the amount of analgesic consumption compared with lidocaine with epinephrine (mean difference, -1.91 doses; 95% CI, -3.35 to -0.46; moderate certainty) and mepivacaine (mean difference, -1.58 doses; 95% CI, -2.21 to -0.95; moderate certainty). Five RCTs suggest that both benzocaine 10% and 20% may increase the number of people experiencing pain reduction compared with placebo when managing acute irreversible pulpitis (low certainty). Practical implications: Bupivacaine may be superior to lidocaine with epinephrine and mepivacaine with regard to time to and amount of analgesic consumption. Benzocaine may be superior to placebo in reducing pain for 20 through 30 minutes after application.

#2 - Dental restorative materials containing quaternary ammonium compounds have sustained antibacterial action John D B Featherstone

Abstract Background: This narrative review addresses dental restorative materials with sustained antibacterial action, especially those containing quaternary ammonium compounds. Secondary caries occurs around restorations, causing further loss of mineral and breakdown of the restoration. Lesions adjacent to restorations account for more than 40% of needed restorations. Restorative materials with antibacterial properties will potentially solve this problem. Types of studies reviewed: Several groups are researching composite restorative materials that incorporate antibacterial agents. These agents are mostly exhausted over time. Newer studies involve materials that incorporate antibacterial microparticles that remain active and do not leach out. Results: One such antibacterial agent, quaternary ammonium coupled with inorganic silica into minute particles (QASi), has been studied in the laboratory and in humans. QASi particles incorporated into dental materials retain their antibacterial action over time without leaching or loss of activity. A clinical in situ study in humans using dental composite containing QASi resulted in highly significantly less demineralization in the adjacent enamel than the control composite material. Conclusions and practical implications: Dental restorative materials that contain QASi have sustained antibacterial properties, have mechanical properties comparable to those of presently marketed materials, and have been cleared by the US Food and Drug Administration. Clinical studies have shown that composites incorporating QASi have the potential to markedly reduce the occurrence of caries around restorations. Because caries around restorations is a major problem, restorative materials with sustained antibacterial properties will have an important effect in reducing secondary caries around restorations.

#3 - Emergency protocol in the dental clinic

Assessing medical emergency training requirements and

guidelines for dentists

Lindsay Pius, BS; Noah Brady, BS; Madison Overby, BS; Jenna Zhu, BS;

Nalton Ferraro, DMD, MD


Background. Medical emergencies are an unavoidable reality affecting dental practices. This review synthesizes and examines the guidelines offered by governmental and professional


Types of Studies Reviewed. Licensing agencies and professional associations were chosen as

organizations of focus based on legal authority, high professional regard, or both. International and interprofessional organizational counterparts were chosen as points of comparison. In total, 11 organizations were examined. Guidelines reported were compiled by examination of documents published on official agency websites and in associated peer-reviewed journals.

Results. Guidelines for the handling of medical emergencies in the dental clinic vary in level of detail and scope among sources. Licensing agencies provide basic requirements for training, encouraging oral health care providers to develop and integrate their own emergency response plans. Professional associations provide extensive detail on instruction in medical emergency management. Both licensing agencies and professional associations provide lists of emergency medications and equipment, with varying levels of instruction on drug maintenance and organization. Professional associations emphasize regular review of training and office emergency drills.

Conclusion. Oral health care professionals are provided with basic and required elements of

medical emergency training by licensing agencies. They may seek out recommended, but not required, instruction from professional associations. Although guidance is provided, literature on protocol instituted in dental practices is limited. Further research is necessary to determine the oral health care community’s approach to emergency management.

Practical Implications. Providers must be prepared to handle medical emergencies that they

encounter. Accessible and understandable guidelines are crucial to safe dental practice.

#4 -Digital restorative workflows for developmental dental defects in young patients A case series

Amanda K. Swanson, BS; Ibrahim S. Duqum, DDS, MS; Lára H. Heimisdóttir, DDS, MS;

J. Timothy Wright, DDS, MS


Background. Digital technology is rapidly changing the provision of oral health care, although its adoption for the oral health care of young patients has lagged. The authors describe digitally supported treatment approaches for managing treatment of developmental dental defects in the early permanent dentition.

Case Description. Four adolescent patients with amelogenesis imperfecta received transitional anterior restorations for esthetic and functional rehabilitation using a variety of digital workflows. Combinations of restoration type, materials, and fabrication methods were selected to meet the needs of each patient on the basis of their specific amelogenesis imperfecta phenotype and chief symptoms. These cases highlight the application of digital technology in pediatric and adolescent dentistry for managing the treatment of developmental dental defects.

Practical Implications. Digitally supported restorative approaches, as described in this report, offer broad applicability of materials and techniques directed at treating the complex restorative needs of young patients in the transitional and early permanent dentition

#5 - Cytotoxicity Analysis of Human Dental Pulp Stem Cells After Silver Diamine Fluoride Application Rosangel Oropeza, DDS, MSD Leticia Chaves de Souza, DDS, MS, PhD Ryan L. Quock, DDS Brett T. Chiquet, DDS, PhD Juliana A. Barros, DDS, MS


Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the cytotoxicity of silver diamine fluoride (SDF) to human dental pulp stem cells (hDPSC).

Methods: hDPSC were exposed to dilutions of 38 percent SDF ( 10-3, 10-4, and 10-5) and incubated for 24 hours. Cell viability was assessed with colorimetric detection assay at 24 hours. Fresh media was used as a negative control, and 0.1% sodium dodecyl sulfate was used as a positive control. Three independent experiments were performed in triplicate. Cell viability data were analyzed using analysis of variance and Tukey’s multiple comparison test.

Results: Cells exposed to dilution of 38 percent SDF 10-3 had an average cell viability of 17.0±3.5 (standard deviation) percent. Cells exposed to SDF 10-4 and 10-5 had an average cell viability of 101±2.5 percent and 94±4.4 percent, respectively. Dilution of 10-3 had significantly lower cell viability than the negative control (P<0.001). Dilution of 10-4 and 10-5 SDF had significantly higher cell viability than the positive control (P<0.001) and cells treated with a dilution of 10-3 (P<0.001).

Conclusions: Thirty-eight percent silver diamine fluoride was cytotoxic to human dental pulp stem cells at a dilution of 10-3, but not at 10-4 and 10-5. In light of the cytotoxicity of SDF to hDPSC, this in vitro study supports the concern that exposure of the full concentration of 38 percent SDF to the pulp should be avoided.

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